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Conditions of Carriage
Terms & Conditions of Carriage

IATA General Conditions of Carriage (Passenger and Baggage)

Article 1 Definitions

Agreed stopping places means those places, except the place of departure and the place of destination, set forth in the ticket or shown in Carrier’s timetables as scheduled stopping places an the passenger’s route.

Baggage means such articles, effects and other personal property of a passenger as are necessary or appropriate for wear, use, comfort or convenience in connection with the trip. Unless otherwise specified, it includes both checked an unchecked baggage of the passenger.

Baggage check means those portions of the Ticket which relate to the carriage of the passenger’s checked baggage.

Baggage identification tag means a document issued by Carrier solely for identification of checked baggage.

Carrier includes the air carrier issuing the ticket on all air carriers that carry or undertake to carry the passenger and/or his baggage thereunder.

Carrier’s regulations means rules, other than these Conditions, published by Carrier on in effect on date of ticket issue, governing carriage of passengers and/or baggage and shall include any applicable tariffs in force.

Checked baggage means baggage of which Carrier takes sole custody and for which Carrier has issued a baggage check.

Conjunction Ticket means a ticket issued to a passenger in conjunction with another ticket which together constitute as single contract of carriage.

Convention means whichever of the following instruments is applicable to the contract of carriage:

the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed at Warsaw. 12 October 1929 (hereinafter referred to as the Warsaw Convention);
the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague an 28 September 1955;
the Warsaw Convention as amended by Additional Protocol No. 1 of Montreal 1975;
the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague 1955 and by Additional Protocol No. 2 of Montreal 1975;
the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague 1955 and by Additional Protocol No. 3 of Montreal 1975.

Days means calendar days, including all seven days of the week; provided that, for the purpose of notification, the day upon which notice is dispatched shall not be counted; and that for purposes of determining duration of validity the day upon which the ticket is issued, or flight commenced, shall not be counted.

Flight coupon means that portion of the ticket that bears the notation “good for passage” and indicates the particular places between which passenger is entitled to be carried.

Passenger means any person, except members of the crew, carried or to be carried in an aircraft with the consent of Carrier.

Passenger coupon or passenger receipt means that portion of the ticket issued by or on be half of Carrier, which is so marked and which ultimately is to be retained by the passenger.

Stopover means a deliberate interruption of a journey by the passenger, at a point between the place of departure and the place of destination, which has been agreed to in advance by Carrier.

Ticket means the document entitled “Passenger Ticket and Baggage Check” issued by or on behalf of carrier and includes the Conditions of Contract and notices and the flight and passenger coupons contained therein.

Unchecked baggage means any baggage of the passenger other than checked baggage.

Article 2 Applicability

2.1 General

2.1.1 Except as provided in 2.2-2.5, these Conditions of Carriage apply to all carriage air of passengers and baggage, performed by Carrier for reward.
2.1.2 These Conditions also apply to gratuitous and reduced fare carriage except to the extent that Carrier has provided otherwise in its Regulations or in the relevant contracts, passes or tickets.
2.2 Carriage to/from USA and Canada
2.2.1 Carriage to/from Canada
These Conditions apply to carriage between places in Canada or between a place in Canada and any place outside thereof, only to the extent they are incorporated in tariffs in force in Canada.
2.2.2 Carriage to/from USA
These Conditions do not apply to air transportation as defined in the U.S. Federal Aviation Act of 1958.
2.3 Charters
If Carriage is performed pursuant to a charter agreement, only to the extent they are incorporated by reference by the terms of the charter agreement and the charter ticket.
2.4 Overriding Law
To the extent that any provision contained or referred to herein is contrary to anything contained in the Convention, where applicable and any applicable laws, government regulations, orders or requirements that cannot be waived by agreement of the parties, such provision shall not apply. The invalidity of any provision shall not affect the validity of any other provision.
2.5 Conditions Prevail Over Regulations
Except as provided herein, in the event of inconsistency between these Conditions and Carrier’s regulations, these Conditions shall prevail, except where tariffs in force in the United States or Canada apply, in which case the tariffs shall prevail.

Article 3 Tickets
3.1 Ticket Prima Facie Evidence of Contract
3.1.1 The ticket constitutes prima facie evidence of the contract of carriage between Carrier and the passenger named on the ticket. The Conditions of Contract contained in the ticket are a summary of some of the provisions of these Conditions of Carriage.
3.1.2 Requirement for Ticket
A person shall not be entitled to be carried on a flight unless that person presents a ticket valid and duly issued in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations and containing the flight coupon for that flight and all other unused flight coupons and the passenger coupon. A passenger shall furthermore not be entitled to be carried if the ticket presented is mutilated or if it has been altered otherwise than by Carrier or its authorized Agent.
3.1.3 Loss, etc. of Ticket
In case of loss or mutilation of a ticket, or Part thereof, or non-presentation of a ticket containing the passenger coupon and all unused flight coupons, the issuing Carrier may at the passenger’s request and subject to Carrier’s Regulations, replace such ticket or part thereof by issuing a new ticket on receipt of proof satisfactory to Carrier that a ticket valid for the flights in question was duly issued.
3.1.4 Ticket not Transferable
A ticket is not transferable. If a ticket is presented by someone other than the person entitled to be carried thereunder or to a refund in connection therewith, Carrier shall not be liable to the Person so entitled if in good faith it provides carriage or makes a refund to the person presenting the ticket.
3.2 Period of Validity
A ticket is valid for carriage for one year from the date of commencement of travel or if no portion of the ticket is used, from the date of issue thereof, except as otherwise provided in the ticket, these Conditions or Carrier’s Regulations.
3.2.1 Extension of Validity
3.2.1.1 If a passenger is prevented from travelling within the period of validity of the ticket because Carrier;
3.2.1.1 (a) cancels the flight on which the passenger holds a reservation; or
3.2.1.1 (b) omits a scheduled step being the passenger’s place of departure, place of destination or a stopover; or
3.2.1.1 (c) fails to operate a flight reasonably according to schedule; or
3.2.1.1 (d) causes the passenger to miss a connection; or
3.2.1.1 (e) substitutes a different class of service; or
3.2.1.1 (f) is unable to provide previously confirmed space;
the validity of such passenger’s ticket will be extended until Carrier’s first flight on which space is available in the class of service for which the fare has been paid.

3.2.1.2 When a passenger holding a ticket, is prevented from travelling within the period of validity of the ticket because at the time such passenger requests reservations Carrier is unable to provide space on the flight, the validity of such passenger’s ticket will be extended in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations.

3.2.1.3 When a passenger after having commenced his or her journeys prevented from travelling within the period of validity of the ticket by reason of illness, Carrier will extend, (provided such extension is not precluded by Carrier’s Regulations applicable to the fare paid by the passenger) the period of validity of such passenger’s ticket until the date when the passenger becomes fit to travel according to a medical certificate, or until Carrier’s first flight after such date from the point where the journey is resumed an which space is available in the class of service for which the fare has been paid. When the flight coupons remaining in the ticket involve one or more stopovers, the validity of such ticket, subject to Carrier’s Regulations, will be extended for not more than three months from the date shown on such certificate. In such circumstances, Carrier will extend similarly the period of validity of tickets of other members of the passenger’s immediate family accompanying an incapacitated passenger.

3.2.1.4 In the event of death of a passenger en route, the tickets of the persons accompanying the passenger may be modified by waiving the minimum stay or extending the validity. In the event of a death in the immediate family of a passenger who has commenced travel, the validity of the passenger’s tickets and those of his or her immediate family accompanying the passenger may be likewise modified. Any such modification shall be made upon receipt of a proper death certificate and any such extension of validity shall not be for a period longer than forty-five (45) days from the date of the death.

3.3 Flight Coupon Sequence
3.3.1 Carrier will honour flight coupons only in sequence from the place of departure as shown on the ticket.
3.3.2 The ticket may not be valid and Carrier may not honour the passenger’s ticket if the first flight coupon for international travel has not been used and the passenger commences his or her journey at any stopover or agreed stopping place.

3.3.3 Each flight coupon will be accepted for carriage in the class of Service specified therein on the date and flight for which accommodation has been reserved. When flight coupons are issued without a reservation being specified thereon, space will be reserved on application subject to the conditions of the relevant fare and the availability of space on the flight applied for.

3.4 Name and Address of Carrier
Carrier’s name may be abbreviated in the ticket. Carrier’s address shall be deemed to be the airport of departure shown opposite the first abbreviation of Carrier’s name in the “Carrier” box in the ticket.

Article 4 Stopovers

Stopovers may be permitted at agreed stopping places subject to government requirements and Carrier’s Regulations.

Article 5 Fares and Charges

5.1 General

Fares apply only for carriage from the airport at the point of origin to the airport at the point of destination. Fares do not include ground transport Service between airports and between airports and town terminals, unless provided by Carrier without additional charge.

5.2 Applicable Fares
Applicable fares are those published by or on behalf of Carrier or, if not so published, constructed in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations. Subject to government requirements and Carrier’s Regulations, the applicable fare is the fare for the flight or flights in effect on the date of commencement of the carriage covered by the first flight coupon of the ticket. When the amount that has been collected is not the applicable fare the difference shall be paid by the passenger or, as the case may be, refunded by Carrier, in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations.

5.3 Routing
Unless otherwise provided in Carrier’s Regulations, fares apply only to routings published in connection therewith. If there is more than one routing at the same fare, the passenger may specify the routing prior to issue of the ticket. If no routing is specified, Carrier may determine the routing.

5.4 Taxes and Charges
Any tax or charge imposed by government or other authority, or by the operator of an airport, in respect of a passenger or the use by a passenger of any service or facilities will be in addition to the published fares and charges and shall be payable by the passenger, except as otherwise provided in Carrier’s Regulations.

5.5 Currency
Fares and charges are payable in any currency acceptable to Carrier. When
payment is made in a currency other than the currency in which the fare is
published, such payment will be made at the rate of exchange established in
accordance with Carrier’s Regulations.

Article 6 Reservations

6.1 Reservation Requirements
6.1.1 Reservations are not confirmed until recorded as accepted by Carrier or its authorized Agent.
6.1.2 As provided in Carrier’s Regulations, certain fares may have conditions which limit or exclude the passenger’s right to change or cancel reservations.
6.2 Ticketing Time Limits
If a passenger has not paid for the ticket (or made credit arrangements with Carrier) prior to the specified ticketing time limit, Carrier may cancel the reservation.

6.3 Personal Data
The passenger recognizes that personal data has been given to Carrier for the purposes of making a reservation for carriage and for obtaining ancillary Services. For these purposes the passenger authorizes Carrier to retain such data and to transmit it to its own offices, other carriers or the providers of such services, in whatever country they may be located.

6.4 Seating
Carrier does not guarantee to provide any particular seat in the aircraft and the passenger agrees to accept any seat that may be allotted on the flight in the class of service for which the ticket has been issued.

6.5 Service Charge when Space not Occupied
A service charge, in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations, may be payable by a passenger who fails to use space for which a reservation has been made.

6.6 Reconfirmation of Reservations
Onward or return reservations may be subject to the requirement to reconfirm the reservation in accordance with and within the time limits specified in Carrier’s Regulations. Failure to comply with any such requirement may result in cancellation of any onward or return reservations.

6.7 Cancellation of Onward Reservations Made by Carrier
If a passenger does not use a reservation and fails to advise Carrier, Carrier may cancel or request cancellation of any onward or return reservations.

Article 7 Check-In
The passenger shall arrive at Carrier’s check-in location and boarding gate sufficiently in advance of flight departure to permit completion of any Government formalities and departure procedures and in any event not later than the time that may be indicated by Carrier. If the passenger fails to arrive in time at Carrier’s check-in location or boarding gate or appears improperly documented and not ready to travel, Carrier may cancel the space reserved for the passenger and will not delay the flight. Carrier is not liable to the passenger for loss or expense due to the passengers failure to comply with the provisions of this Article.

Article 8 Refusal and Limitation of Carriage

8.1 Right to Refuse Carriage
Carrier may refuse carriage of any passenger or passenger’s baggage for reasons of safety or if, in the exercise of its reasonable discretion, Carrier determines that:
8.1.1 such action is necessary in order to comply with any applicable laws, regulations, or orders of any state or country to be flown from, into or over; or
8.1.2 the conduct, age, or mental or physical state of the passenger is such as to:
8.1.2.1 require special assistance of Carrier, or
8.1.2.2 cause discomfort or make himself or herself objectionable to other passengers, or
8.1.2.3 involve any hazard or risk to himself or herself or to other persons or to property; or
8.1.3 such action is necessary because the passenger has failed to observe the
instructions of Carrier; or
8.1.4 the passenger has refused to submit to a security check; or
8.1.5 the applicable fare or any charges or taxes payable have not been paid, or
credit arrangements agreed between Carrier and the passenger (or the person paying for the ticket) have not been complied with; or
8.1.6 the passenger does not appear to be properly documented; or
8.1.7 the ticket presented by the passenger:
8.1.7.1 has been acquired unlawfully or has been purchased from an entity other than the issuing Carrier or its authorized Agent, or
8.1.7.2 has been reported as being lost or stolen, or
8.1.7.3 is a counterfeit ticket, or
8.1.7.4 any flight coupon has been altered by anyone other than Carrier or its authorized Agent, or has been mutilated, and Carrier reserves the right to retain such ticket;
8.1.8 the person presenting the ticket cannot prove that he or she is the person named in the “Name of Passenger” box, and Carrier reserves the right to retain such tickets.
8.2 Limitation on Carriage
Acceptance for carriage of unaccompanied children, incapacitated persons, pregnant women or persons with illness may be subject to prior arrangement with Carrier, in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations.

Article 9 Baggage

9.1 Items Unacceptable as Baggage
9.1.1 The passenger shall not include in his or her baggage:
9.1.1.1 items which do not constitute baggage as defined in Article 1 hereof;
9.1.1.2 items which are likely to endanger the aircraft or persons or property on board the aircraft, such as those specified in the Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and in Carrier’s Regulations (further information is available from Carrier on request);
9.1.1.3 items the carriage of which is prohibited by the applicable laws, regulations or orders of any state to be flown from, to or over;
9.1.1.4 items which in the opinion of Carrier are unsuitable for carriage by reason of their weight, size or character, such as fragile or perishable items;
9.1.1.5 live animals, except as provided for in 9.10.
9.1.2 Firearms and ammunition other than for hunting and sporting purposes are prohibited from carriage as baggage. Firearms and ammunition for hunting and sporting purposes may be accepted as checked baggage in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations. Firearms must be unloaded with the safety catch on, and suitably packed. Carriage of ammunition is subject to ICAO and IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.

9.1.3 The passenger shall not include in checked baggage, fragile or perishable items, money, jewellery, precious metals, silverware, negotiable papers, securities or other valuables, business documents, passports and other identification documents or samples.

9.1.4 Weapons such as antique firearms, swords, knives and similar items may be accepted as checked baggage, in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations, but will not be permitted in the cabin.

9.1.5 If any items referred to in 9.1.1 or 9.1.2 are carried, whether or not they are prohibited from carriage as baggage, the carriage thereof shall be subject to the charges, limitations of liability and other provisions of these Conditions applicable to the carriage of baggage.

9.2 Right to Refuse Carriage
9.2.1 Carrier may refuse carriage as baggage of such items described in 9.1 as are prohibited from carriage as baggage and may refuse further carriage of any such items on discovery thereof.

9.2.2 Carrier may refuse to carry as baggage any item because of its size, shape,
weight or character.
9.2.3 Unless advance arrangements for its carriage have been made with Carrier, Carrier may carry on later flights baggage which is in excess of the applicable free allowance.
9.2.4 Carrier may refuse to accept baggage as checked baggage unless it is properly packed in suitcases or other suitable containers to ensure safe carriage with ordinary care in handling.

9.3 Right of Search
For reasons of safety and security, Carrier may request the passenger to permit a search to be made of his or her person and his or her baggage, and may search or have searched the passenger’s baggage in his or her absence if the passenger is not available, for the purpose of determining whether he or she is in possession of or whether his or her baggage contains any item described in 9.1.1 or any arms or munitions which have not been presented to Carrier in accordance with 9.1.2. If the passenger is unwilling to comply with such request Carrier may refuse to carry the passenger or baggage.

9.4 Checked Baggage
9.4.1 Upon delivery to Carrier of baggage to be checked, Carrier shall take custody thereof and issue a baggage identification tag for each piece of checked baggage.

9.4.2 If baggage has no name, initials or other personal identification, the passenger shall affix such identification to the baggage prior to acceptance.
9.4.3 Checked baggage will be carried on the same aircraft as the passenger unless Carrier decides that this is impracticable, in which case Carrier will carry the checked baggage on Carrier’s next flight on which space is available.

9.5 Free Baggage Allowance
Passengers may carry free of charge baggage as specified and subject to the conditions and limitations in Carrier’s Regulations.
9.6 Excess Baggage
A passenger shall pay a charge for the carriage of baggage in excess of the free baggage allowance at the rate and in the manner provided in Carrier’s Regulations.

9.7 Excess Value Declaration and Charge
9.7.1 If, in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations, Carrier offers an excess valuation facility, a passenger may declare a value for checked baggage in excess of the applicable liability limits. If the passenger makes such a declaration the passenger shall pay any applicable charges.

9.7.2 Carrier will refuse to accept an excess value declaration on checked baggage when a portion of the carriage is to be provided by another Carrier which does not offer the facility.

9.8
9.8.1 Baggage which the passenger carries on to the aircraft must fit under the seat in front of the passenger or in an enclosed storage compartment in the cabin. Items determined by Carrier to be of excessive weight or size will not be permitted in the cabin.

9.8.2 Objects not suitable for transport in the cargo compartment (such as delicate musical instruments and the like) will only be accepted for transportation in the cabin compartment if due notice has been given in advance and permission granted by Carrier. The transport of such objects may be charged for separately.

9.9 Collection and Delivery of Baggage
9.9.1 The passenger shall collect his or her baggage as soon as it is available for collection at places of destination or stopover.
9.9.2 Only the bearer of the baggage check and identification tag, delivered to the passenger at the time the baggage was checked, is entitled to delivery of baggage. Failure to exhibit the baggage identification tag shall not prevent delivery provided the baggage check is produced and the baggage is identified by other means.

9.9.3 If a person claiming the baggage is unable to produce the baggage check and identify the baggage by means of a baggage (identification) tag, Carrier will deliver the baggage to such person only on condition that he or she establishes to Carrier’s satisfaction his or her right thereto, and if required by Carrier, such person shall furnish adequate security to indemnify Carrier for any loss, damage or expense which may be incurred by Carrier as a result of such delivery.

9.9.4 Acceptance of baggage by the bearer of the baggage check without complaint at the time of delivery is prima facie evidence that the baggage has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the contract of carriage.

9.10 Animals
9.10.1 Animals such as dogs, cats, household birds and other pets, when properly crated and accompanied by valid health and vaccination certificates, entry permits, and other documents required by countries of entry or transit will, with the advance agreement of Carrier, be accepted for carriage, subject to Carrier’s Regulations.

9.10.2 If accepted as baggage, the animal, together with its container and food carried, shall not be included in the free baggage allowance of the passenger but constitute excess baggage, for which the passenger shall pay the applicable rate.

9.10.3 Guide dogs accompanying sight/hearing impaired* passengers together with containers and food, will be carried free of charge in addition to the normal free baggage allowance, subject to Carrier’s Regulations.
9.10.4 Acceptance for carriage of animals is subject to the condition that the passenger assumes full responsibility for such animal. Carrier shall not be liable for injury to or loss, delay, sickness or death of such animal in the event that it is refused entry into or passage through any country, state or territory.

Article 10 Schedules, Cancellation of Flights

10.1 Schedules
Carrier undertakes to use its best efforts to carry the passenger and his baggage with reasonable dispatch and to adhere to published schedules in effect on the date of travel.
10.2 Cancellation, Changes of Schedule, etc.
If due to circumstances beyond its control Carrier cancels or delays a flight, is unable to provide previously confirmed space, fails to stop at a passenger’s stopover or destination point, or causes the passenger to miss a connecting flight an which the passenger holds a reservation, Carrier shall either:
10.2.1 carry the passenger an another of its scheduled passenger services an which space is available; or
10.2.2 reroute the passenger to the destination indicated on the ticket or applicable portion thereof by its own scheduled services or the scheduled services of another carrier, or by means of surface transportation. If the sum of the fare, excess baggage charge and any applicable service charge for the revised routing is higher than the refund value of the ticket or applicable portion thereof, Carrier shall require no additional fare or charge from the passenger, and shall refund the difference if the fare and charges for the revised routing are lower; or
10.2.3 make a refund in accordance with the provisions of Article 11; and shall be under no further liability to the passenger.

10.3
If Carrier provides denied boarding compensation, an appropriate reference should be inserted here.

10.4
Except in the case of its acts or omissions done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result, Carrier shall not be liable for errors or omissions in timetables or other published schedules, or for representations made by employees, agents or representatives of Carrier as to the dates or times of departure or arrival or as to the Operation of any flight.

Article 11 Refunds

11.1 General
On failure by Carrier to provide carriage in accordance with the contract of carriage, or where a passenger requests a voluntary change of his or her arrangements, refund for an unused ticket or portion thereof shall be made by Carrier in accordance with this Article and with Carrier’s Regulations.

11.2 Person to Whom Refund will be Made
11.2.1 Except as hereinafter provided in this Article, Carrier shall be entitled to make refund either to the person named in the ticket, or to the person who has paid for the ticket upon presentation of satisfactory proof.
11.2.2 If a ticket has been paid for by a person other than the passenger named in the ticket, and Carrier has indicated on the ticket that there is a restriction on refund, Carrier shall make a refund only to the person paying for the ticket or to that person’s order.
11.2.3 Except in the case of lost tickets, refunds will only be made on surrender to Carrier of the passenger coupon or passenger receipt and surrender of all unused flight coupons.
11.2.4 A refund made to anyone presenting the passenger coupon or passenger receipt and all unused flight coupons and holding himself out as a person to whom refund may be made in terms of 11.2.1 or 11.2.2 shall he deemed a proper refund and shall discharge Carrier from liability and any further claim for refund.
11.3 Involuntary Refunds
If Carrier cancels a flight, fails to operate a flight reasonably according to schedule, fails to stop at a point to which the passenger is destined or ticketed to stopover, is unable to provide previously confirmed space or causes the passenger to miss a connecting flight an which the passenger holds a reservation, the amount of the refund shall be:
11.3.1 if no portion of the ticket has been used, an amount equal to the fare paid;
11.3.2 if a portion of the ticket has been used, the refund will be the higher of:
11.3.2.1 the one way fare (less applicable discounts and charges) from point of interruption to destination or point of next stopover, or
11.3.2.2 the difference between the fare paid and the fare for the transportation used.
11.4 Voluntary Refunds
If the passenger wishes a refund of his or her ticket for reasons other than those set out in Paragraphs of this Article, the amount of the refund shall be:
11.4.1 if no portion of the ticket has been used, an amount equal to the fare paid, less any applicable service charges or cancellation fees;
11.4.2 if a portion of the ticket has been used, the refund will be an amount equal to the difference between the fare paid and the applicable fare for travel between the points for which the ticket has been used, less any applicable service charges or cancellation fees.
11.5 Refund on Lost Ticket
11.5.1 If a ticket or portion thereof is lost, refund will be made on proof of loss satisfactory to Carrier and upon payment of any applicable service charge, on condition:
11.5.1.1 that the lost ticket, or portion thereof, has not been used, previously refunded or replaced;
11.5.1.2 that the person to whom the refund is made undertakes, in such form as may be prescribed by Carrier, to repay to carrier the amount refunded in the event and to the extent that the lost ticket or portion thereof is used by any Person or that refund thereof is made to any person in possession of the ticket.
11.6 Right to Refuse Refund
11.6.1 After the expiry of the validity of the ticket, Carrier may refuse refund when application therefore is made later than the time prescribed in Carrier’s Regulations.
11.6.2 Carrier may refuse refund on a ticket which has been presented to Carrier or to Government officials of a country as evidence of intention to depart therefrom, unless the passenger establishes to the Carrier’s satisfaction that he or she has permission to remain in the country or that he or she will depart therefrom by another carrier or another means of transport.
11.7 Currency
11.7.1 All refunds will be subject to Government laws, rules and regulations or orders of the country in which the ticket was originally purchased and of the country in which the refund is being made. Subject to the foregoing provision, refunds will normally be made in the currency in which the ticket was paid for, but may be made in another currency in accordance with Carrier’s Regulations.
11.7.2 Voluntary refunds will be made only by the Carrier which originally issued the ticket or by its Agent if so authorized.

Article 12 Conduct Aboard Aircraft

1. If the passenger conducts himself or herself aboard the aircraft so as to endanger the aircraft or any person or property an board, or obstructs the crew in the Performance of their duties, or fails to comply with any instruction of the crew, or behaves in a manner to which other passengers may reasonably object, Carrier may take such measures as it deems necessary to prevent continuation of such conduct, including restraint of the passenger.

2. The passenger may not operate aboard the aircraft portable radios, electronic games or transmitting devices including radio controlled toys and walkietalkies. The passenger shall not operate any other electronic devices on board without Carrier’s permission, except that portable recorders, hearing aids and heart pacemakers may be used.

Article 13 Arrangements by Carrier

If in the course of concluding the contract of carriage by air, Carrier also agrees
to make arrangements for the provision of additional services, Carrier shall have
no liability to the passenger except for negligence on its part in making such
arrangements.

Article 14 Administrative Formalities

14.1 General
The passenger shall be solely responsible for complying with all laws, regulations, orders, demands and travel requirements of countries to be flown from, into or over, and with Carrier’s Regulations and instructions. Carrier shall not be liable for any aid or information given by any agent or employee of Carrier to any passenger in connection with obtaining necessary documents or visas or complying with such laws, regulations, orders, demands, and requirements, whether given in writing or otherwise; or for the consequences to any passenger resulting from his failure to obtain such documents or visas or to comply with such laws, regulations, orders, demands, requirements, rules or instructions.

14.2 Travel Documents
The passenger shall present all exit, entry, health and other documents required by laws, regulations, orders, demands or requirements of the countries concerned. Carrier reserves the right to refuse carriage of any passenger who has not complied with applicable laws, regulations, orders, demands or requirements or whose documents do not appear to be in order.

14.3 Refusal of Entry
The passenger agrees to pay the applicable fare whenever Carrier, on Government order, is required to return a passenger to his point of origin or elsewhere, owing to the
passenger’s inadmissibility into a country, whether of transit or of destination. Carrier may apply to the payment of such fare any funds paid to Carrier for unused carriage, or any funds of the passenger in the possession of Carrier. The fare collected for carriage to the point of refusal of entry or deportation will not be refunded by Carrier.

14.4 Passenger Responsible for Fines, Detention Costs, etc.
If Carrier is required to pay or deposit any fine or penalty or to incur any expenditure by reason of the passenger’s failure to comply with laws, regulations, orders, demands and travel requirements of the countries concerned or to produce the required documents, the passenger shall on demand reimburse to Carrier any amount so paid or deposited and any expenditure so incurred. Carrier may use towards such expenditure any funds paid to Carrier for unused carriage, or any funds of the passenger in the possession of Carrier.

14.5 Customs Inspection
If required, the passenger shall attend inspection of his or her baggage, checked or unchecked, by customs or other Government officials. Carrier is not liable to the passenger for any loss or damage suffered by the passenger through failure to comply with this requirement.

14.6 Security Inspection
The passenger shall submit to any security checks by Government or airport officials or by Carrier.

Article 15 Successive Carriers

Carriage to be performed by several successive Carriers under one ticket, or under a ticket and any conjunction ticket issued in connection therewith, is regarded as a single operation.

Article 16 Liability for Damage

16.1
Carriage hereunder is subject to the rules and limitations relating to liability established by the Convention unless such carriage is not international carriage to which the Convention applies.

16.2
In carriage which is not international carriage to which the Convention applies:

16.2.1 Carrier shall be liable for damage to a passenger or his checked baggage only if such damage has been caused by the negligence of Carrier. If there has been contributory negligence on me part of the passenger, Carrier’s liability shall be subject to the applicable law relating to contributory negligence;
16.2.2 except in the case of acts or omissions done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result:
16.2.2.1 the liability of Carrier with respect to each passenger for death, wounding or other bodily injury shall be limited to the sum of ... provided that if in accordance with applicable law a different limit of liability is applicable such different limit shall apply,
16.2.2.2 with respect to delay, Carrier shall be under no liability except as provided in these Conditions of Carriage.

16.3
To the extent not in conflict with the foregoing and whether or not the Convention applies:
16.3.1 Carrier is liable only for damage occurring on its own line. A Carrier issuing a ticket or checking baggage over the lines of another Carrier does so only as agent for such other Carrier. Nevertheless, with respect to checked baggage the passenger shall also have a right of action against the first or last Carrier;
16.3.2 Carrier is not liable for damage to unchecked baggage unless such damage is caused by the negligence of Carrier. If there has been contributory negligence on the part of the passenger, Carrier’s liability shall be subject to the applicable law relating to contributory negligence;
16.3.3 Carrier is not liable for any damage arising from its compliance with any laws or Government regulations, orders or requirements, or from failure of the passenger to comply with the same;
16.3.4 except in the case of acts or omissions done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result, the liability of Carrier in the case of damage to checked baggage shall be limited to ... per kilogram and in the case of damage to unchecked baggage shall be limited to ... per passenger, provided that if in accordance with applicable law different limits of liability are applicable such different limits shall apply. If the weight of the baggage is not recorded on the baggage check, it is presumed that the total weight of the checked baggage does not exceed the applicable free baggage allowance for the class of service concerned, as provided in Carrier’s Regulations. If in the case of checked baggage a higher value is declared pursuant to 9.7, the liability of Carrier shall be limited to such higher declared value;
16.3.5 Carrier’s liability shall not exceed the amount of proven damages. Carrier shall furthermore not be liable for indirect or consequential damages;
16.3.6 Carrier is not liable for injury to a passenger or for damage to a passenger’s baggage caused by property contained in such passenger’s baggage. Any passenger whose property causes injury to another person or damage to another person’s property or to the property of Carrier shall indemnify Carrier for all losses and expenses incurred by Carrier as a result thereof;
16.3.7 Carrier is not liable for damage to fragile or perishable items, money, jewellery, precious metals, silverware, negotiable papers, securities, or other valuables, business documents, passports and other identification documents, or samples, which are included in the passenger’s checked baggage;
16.3.8 if a passenger is carried whose age or mental or physical condition is such as to involve any hazard or risk to himself or herself, Carrier shall not be liable for any illness, injury or disability, including death, attributable to such condition or for the aggravation of such condition;
16.3.9 any exclusion or limitation of liability of Carrier shall apply to and be for the benefit of agents, employees and representatives of Carrier and any Person whose aircraft is used by Carrier and such person’s agents, employees and representatives. The aggregate amount recoverable from Carrier and from such agents, employees, representatives and persons shall not exceed the amount of Carrier’s limit of liability.

16.4
Unless so expressly provided nothing herein contained shall waive any exclusion or limitation of liability of Carrier under the Convention or applicable laws. For Carriers who are Parties to Montreal Agreement: Special Agreement applicable to carriage to, from or with an agreed stopping place in the United States of America (see applicable US tariffs).

Special Agreement
Carrier shall avail itself of the limitation of liability provided in the Convention. However, in accordance with Article 22(1) of the Convention (name of issuing Carrier) and certain other Carriers agree that as to all international carriage by such Carriers to which the Convention applies and which according to the Contract of Carriage includes a point in the United States of America as a point of origin, a point of destination or agreed stopping place:

(a) the Limit of liability for each passenger for death, wounding or other bodily injury shall be the sum of US-Dollar 75,000 inclusive of legal fees and costs except that, in the case of a claim brought in a State where provision is made for separate award of legal fees and costs, the limit shall be the sum of US Dollar 58,000 exclusive of legal fees and costs;

(b) such Carriers shall not, with respect to any claim arising out of the death, wounding or other bodily injury of a passenger, avail themselves of any defence under Article 20(1) of the Convention.

Nothing herein shall be deemed to affect the rights and liabilities of such Carriers with regard to any claim brought by, on behalf of, or in respect of, any person who has wilfully caused damage which resulted in death, wounding, or other bodily Injury of a passenger.

The names of Carriers party to the agreement referred to in this Paragraph are available at all ticket offices of such Carriers and may be examined on request. Each of such Carriers has entered into the said agreement solely on its own behalf and with respect to carriage performed by it and has not thereby imposed any liability an any other Carrier with respect to the portion of the carriage performed by such other Carrier or assumed any liability with respect to the portion of the carriage performed by such other Carrier.

(If the Carrier is a part to other special contracts pursuant to Article 22(1) of the Convention, apart from the Montreal Agreement, the limitations of liability and related conditions provided for under such special contracts should be stated here.)

Article 17 Time Limitation on Claims and Actions

17.1 Notice of Claims

No action shall lie in the case of damage to checked baggage unless the person entitled to delivery complains to Carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within seven days from the date of receipt; and in the case of delay, unless the complaint is made at the latest within twentyone (21) days horn the date on which the baggage has been placed at his disposal. Every complaint must be made in writing and dispatched within the times aforesaid.

17.2 Limitation of Actions

Any right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or horn the date on which the carriage stopped. The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the court seized of the case.

Article 18 Modification and Waiver

No Agent, employee or representative of Carrier has authority to alter, modify or waive any provision of these Conditions of Carriage.
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(Name of Carrier)
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(Abbreviation of Name)

 
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